The direct benefit for aqueous residuals producers (BP Chembel, Bekaert, Recmix, Nyrstar) will be that they can reduce their costs for wastewater treatment, while mitigating the concentration of critical raw materials in their wastewater. Instead, they will generate added value from the critical raw materials, which will create in Flanders a new market for companies that build or operate installations (Envisan, Trevi, Tectero). In some cases the recovered metals can be reused in their own production, with an additional added value by reducing the costs for raw materials (BP Chembel). When the products cannot be reused on site or when the products are a mixed precipitate, further upgrading of the produced materials is required by third parties. This roll can be fulfilled by companies that are valorizing recycled metals (Nyrstar, Recmix). These recycling companies will upgrade the materials to the specifications required by end-users of the recycled metals (BP Chembel and potentially Bekaert).